The continuous relationship between producing the cleanest possible steel at the lowest possible price remains and ongoing challenge in the industry. Composition adjustment by sealed argon bubbling – oxygen blowing is one unit process in secondary metallurgy which can help in this quest. Continue reading
Copper flash smelting is a relatively new process which has been in operation since the 70’s and is a pyrometallurgical process used in conjunction with copper sulphide concentrates. The main key facilitators produced by the process include controlled oxidation of Fe and S, a large evolution of heat and the effective melting of solids.
High pressure acid leaching is becoming more and more important and the inevitable strain on natural resources continues. Its primary purpose is the assist in the recovery of nickel from lacerite ores but can also be used for other metals such as copper and cobalt. Continue reading
Slag metal reactions during welding remains a complex and largely unknown subject area with regards to creating practical and effective welding consumables. Most studies use thermodynamic considerations to understand when the most optimized temperature equilibrium is achieved, this however comes with additional issues.
Crack tip opening displacement is widely used and quite specific in that it is the only standardized test that covers all fracture behaviors that occur between the extremes associated with the stress intensity factor K and J-integral tests. CTOD in relation with component load gives the opportunity to determine the crack driving force in the vicinity of the crack tip. Continue reading